Linux File System Hierarchy Standards (FHS)

  1. / – Root 
    • Every single file and directory starts from the root directory
    • Only root user has write privilege under this directory.
  2. /bin – User Binaries
    • Contains binary executables.
    • Common Linux commands you need to use in single-user modes are located under this directory.
    • Commands used by all the users of the system are located here.
    • For example: ps, ls, ping, grep, cp.
  3. /sbin – System Binaries
    • Just like /bin, /sbin also contains binary executables.
    • But, the linux commands located under this directory are used typically by system administrator, for system maintenance purpose.
    • For example: iptables, reboot, fdisk, ifconfig, swapon
  4. /etc – Configuration Files
    • Contains configuration files required by all programs.
    • This also contains startup and shutdown shell scripts used to start/stop individual programs.
    •  For example: /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
  5. /dev – Device Files
    • Contains device files.
    • These include terminal devices, usb, or any device attached to the system.
    • For example: /dev/tty1, /dev/usbmon0
  6. /proc – Process Information
    • Contains information about system process.
    • This is a pseudo file system contains information about running process. For example: /proc/{pid} directory contains information about the process with that particular pid.
    • This is a virtual file system with text information about system resources.
    • For example: /proc/uptime
  7. /var – Variable Files
    • var stands for variable files.
    • Content of the files that are expected to grow can be found under this directory.
    • This includes — system log files (/var/log); packages and database files (/var/lib); emails (/var/mail); print queues (/var/spool); lock files (/var/lock); temp files needed across reboots (/var/tmp);
  8. /tmp – Temporary Files
    • Directory that contains temporary files created by system and users.
    • Files under this directory are deleted when system is rebooted.
  9. /usr – User Programs 
    • Contains binaries, libraries, documentation, and source-code level programs.
    • /usr/bin contains binary files for user programs. If you can’t
    • binary under /bin, look under /usr/bin. For example: at, awk, cc, less, scp
    • /usr/sbin contains binary files for system administrators. If you system binary under /sbin, look under /usr/sbin.
    • For example: atd, cron, sshd, useradd, userdel
    • /usr/lib contains libraries for /usr/bin and /usr/sbin
    • /usr/local contains users programs that you install from source.
    • For example, when you install apache from source, it /usr/local/apache2
  10. /home – Home Directories
    • Home directories for all users to store their personal files.
    • For example: /home/john, /home/nikita
  11. /boot – Boot Loader Files
    • Contains boot loader related files.
    • Kernel initrd, vmlinux, grub files are located under /boot
    • For example: initrd.img-2.6.32-24-generic, vmlinuz-2.6.32-24-generic
  12. /lib – System Libraries
    • Contains library files that supports the binaries located under /bin and /sbin
    • Library filenames are either ld* or lib*.so.*
    • For example:,
  13. /opt – Optional add-on Applications
    • opt stands for optional.
    • Contains add-on applications from individual vendors.
    • add-on applications should be installed under either /opt/ or /opt/ sub-directory.
  14. /mnt – Mount Directory
    • Temporary mount directory where sysadmins can mount file systems.
  15. /media – Removable Media Devices
    • Temporary mount directory for removable devices.
    • For examples, /media/cdrom for CD-ROM; /media/floppy for floppy drives; /media/cdrecorder for CD writer
  16. /srv – Service Data
    •  srv stands for service.
    •  Contains server specific services related data.
    •  For example, /srv/cvs contains CVS related data.

References :- From Laxman sir’s Note 😀 .

Current Trends of Web Development


In this post i will write something about current trends of web development in my point of view. Web development is the process of developing web applications using certain tools and programming languages, programming frameworks etc. The concern of the development of any application is need to develop with least time with quality of products. For this we need to use the different kinds of tools that really helps developer to make web application faster.What is the current trends of the latest Professional Web development in these days are i will describe below.

 Front End development of web applications

Front end of web application is the what we can see in the web application it is the user interface from where user can interact with web applications. For the front end development we use html, css , javascript , jquery etc . These are the basic elements of the web development component. In these days the style of writing these codes is huge different than previous days.

For the Front End development we use the html,css and javascript. The  most popular framework is bootstrap, Which makes the easy to write code and gives the awesome platform for the developer. Again Foundation is the same type of framework, Similarly another example of front-end html,css framework is Materializecss. These Frameworks provides the certain code information and documentation for the ease of Front end development. These are really Helped to make front end with great features in few minutes.

Another way to get make front-end development is the using Scss, Sass that helps to create the platform to speeds up the development of front end development. Modular platform can be provided by these tools. These are not frameworks but these are the something like css generators using set up mixins and rule for the css. So it is the great idea for the web development Again Bourbon is the rich set of mixins so if you install bourbon you don’t have to write lots of mixins. With Bourbon there are different kinds of tools such as Neat,Bitters,Refills etc. These tools really helps for the website Front end development.

Again the another important programming language JavaScript has now rich set of plugins and Frameworks, J query is popular plugin of JavaScript and Angular js gets fame on website development. It can also provides local storage concept. There are lots of plugins and frameworks of JavaScript that really helps your web application interactive and awesome.


Back End Development of web applications

To make the web application we again need back end logic for this we can use different kinds of programing languages such as PHP, Java, C# , Ruby etc. These tools has different kinds of frameworks and CMS systems. For e.g. Php has several frameworks such as Laravel, Codeiginiter, Symfony , Zend Framework etc and CMS systems such as Drupal, WordPress etc. These really makes easy to the web development . To make the website development faster and reliable we need to use these kinds of frameworks and tools to become the professional developer forever. Again We also need to develop the tools and frameworks That makes the new type of pattern for the other peoples.



We need to follow the current trends for the web development. The trends is Rapidly developing the applications with awesome quality. For the development of the web applications we need to use popular frameworks and tools and get updated time to time. And again we need to involve to create frameworks and tools too.

Most of the cases Bourbon is better than Bootstrap

Bourbon and bootstrap are two distinct tools that helps greatly to make front end development easy and awesome. Bootstrap is an html, css, javascript framework that you can use as basis for creating web sites or web applications. For More information you can see official site of bootstrap. And Bourbon is a lightweight sass tool set bourbon has rich set of mixins that makes easy to code for css. The computational work of bourbon Neat, Bitters and Refills makes lot more easy for your front web development easy. For more information of the bourbon, neat , bitters and refills click this link.

oh ! sorry i got lost on the description. Lets move to the topic.

At the time of developing website using bootstrap we need to make the pre-specified class by bootstrap and make to hierarchy of tags that sometimes makes long  hierarchy unnecessarily for example

<div class=“container”>
  <div class=“row”>
    <div class=“col-md-6”>/* some content */</div>
    <div class=“col-md-6”>/* some content */</div>

But when using bourbon we can simply write the code in the example below.

<div class=“news”>
  <div class=“hot-news”>
  <div class=“latest-news”>

using some line of scss code we can make the same layout as bootstrap from the above tags.
.news { @include outercontainer; }
.latestnews { @include span(6); }
Again Bourbon is customized than bootstrap because you can use the only required code for the css and html. When using bootstrap you need to use the whole file, OK there is options you can customize your bootstrap files but that does not make huge scenes because you may not know actually what kind of components are required for the development of the website.

Layout Changing with Bootstrap and Bourbon

At the time of developing website using bootstrap we need to change some classes that means we don’t use exactly same layout and colors combinations for the html components. When at the time of changing layout we need to search at the console which component affect to the design and we need to overwrite that css. It makes more load to the website. And some trouble arises at the time of overwrite css.

In Bourbon you do’not need to overwrite css because bourbon is not only library of mixins . And Refills provide the code for html, css and javascript that  you can simply copy and paste to your site. If need change the layout or design you can change in the original code no need to overwrite it So it makes Simpler.


Bourbon and Bootstrap are two different tools. These tools make help for the front-end responsive website development. And on last thing bourbon is light weight than bootstrap because bourbon can use only required components only.

This is the finish of sixth semester


Today is the day our sixth semester examination is finished. Our exam center was bhakatapur and today’s subject was Net Centric Conputing. Questions shocked us because question pattern are lot more different from the previous examination’s questions. I just attempt all the questions any how. And Lot’s of subquestions in the question so it took complete 3 hours to finish the today’s exam.

After the finish of the examination We are headed to the bhaktapur durbar square. At that time we were 5, Gokarna, Suman, Prabhat, Sanjay and me. We walked to the durbar square from the sanothimi bhaktapur. We discussed about natural and world heritage sites of nepal, Future Study Plans, and plan for the practical examination and so on. That makes more fun with friends together. By the earthquare in 2015 this durbar square is affected badly so we feel sad about that.